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Conflict in Ukraine: Half 4 – Are There Neo-Nazis in Ukraine?

That is half 4 of my sequence on the Russian invasion of Ukraine, you may learn the opposite components right here.

In his speech declaring struggle on Ukraine, the (not so nice) dictator of Russia, Vladimir Putin, stated the purpose of his “particular operation” was the demilitarization and de-Nazification of Ukraine and ridding it of drug addicts. The purpose of demilitarization made sense, not less than from Putin’s perspective – he needed a regime change. He’d take away the democratically elected authorities and set up a Russia-friendly puppet authorities as a substitute, thus increasing the ability and affect of the Russian empire. 

However de-Nazification? 

Putin made it sound like Ukraine is swarming with Nazis. However Putin was not speaking to me or my Western readers; this speech was directed to the Russian individuals. A big majority in Russia is satisfied that the Russian Military is doing God’s work, eradicating from energy neo-Nazis that have been committing genocide in Ukraine and particularly East Ukraine (I mentioned this partly 3 of this sequence). To my shock, I discovered that almost all of my center faculty buddies in Russia imagine this, too.

This was inconceivable to me. How might Ukrainians, who, based mostly on my interactions with them, have been culturally indistinguishable from Russians, abruptly grew to become Nazis? I needed to know the place this neo-Nazis perception was coming from. I spent extra time than I’d wish to admit studying and watching Putin’s propaganda to know it. 

All propaganda often has a kernel of reality. To know that tiny kernel of reality about neo-Nazis in Ukraine, we’ve got to return to the start of the 20th century. That century was terribly unkind to Ukraine, simply because it was to most European international locations. Ukraine discovered itself caught between two empires, the Austro-Hungarian and Russian, that fought one another and stepped throughout Ukraine. Its individuals have been continuously victimized. Ukraine fought the Poles within the Polish-Ukrainian Conflict in 1918. After which the Ukrainians grew to become casualties of each the Pink (Bolshevik) and White (anti-Bolshevik) factions through the Soviet revolution.

Because the Soviets got here to energy, issues acquired lots worse. Within the early Thirties a couple of quarter of the nation died from starvation, a disaster that went into the historical past books because the Holodomor or Nice Famine. The Holodomor was attributable to the “good” insurance policies of Joseph Stalin. Ukraine on the time was a largely agrarian society – over 80% of the inhabitants lived on farms. Stalin’s nice concept was to collectivize the farms. All land was expropriated from its farmers and put right into a collective referred to as Kolhoz (an acronym loosely translated as “collective farm”). Farmers grew to become laborers on the lands they used to personal. Those that refused to surrender their farms have been referred to as “kulaki” (which interprets as “tight-fisted”) – they have been shot. 

When all people owns every thing, no one owns something. You aren’t going to have soul within the recreation whenever you labor for the collective good, an summary idea. Manufacturing from the collective farms was drastically decrease than once they have been privately owned, whereas Bolsheviks have been amassing “the vig,” based mostly on pre-collectivization output. Add some dangerous climate into the combo, Ukraine starved, as hundreds of thousands of individuals died from starvation (I’ve seen figures as excessive as eight million). As an apart, when politicians who by no means spent a minute operating a enterprise come out with social-redistribution or financial insurance policies, consider Comrade Stalin and the way his theoretically possible insurance policies failed in observe and killed hundreds of thousands of individuals. 

In photos of starved Ukrainians from this period, they give the impression of being no completely different from prisoners at Auschwitz. Ukrainians usually take a look at Holodomor as Russian genocide towards Ukrainians. I’m not a historian, however evidently Stalin’s insurance policies weren’t directed particularly in direction of Ukraine but in addition impacted Russia and Kazakhstan. The Ukrainians have been additionally terrorized and abused by those that collected their wheat. They have been usually killed if they didn’t report all wheat that was collected. Evidently, many Ukrainians regarded on the Soviets as oppressors. 

I’m making an attempt to simplify a really advanced historical past in only a few paragraphs, and I’m describing Ukraine as a monolithic nation. It’s something however. It’s a nation that usually holds reverse views on points in several components of the nation. Hold that in thoughts whereas studying this. 

At the start of WWII, when the German Military entered Ukraine, some Ukrainians (particularly within the western a part of the nation) checked out Germans as “the enemy of my enemy is my buddy.” They welcomed the Germans as their liberators from Soviet oppression. Some joined the Nazis and have become their henchmen, exhibiting cruelty just like that of the Nazis. Russian propaganda won’t ever allow you to overlook that. 

Additionally, right now we take a look at Nazis as heartless aggressors who killed hundreds of thousands of individuals and perpetrated the Holocaust, and deservingly so. However we take pleasure in hindsight. On the opening of WWII, Japanese Europeans didn’t know what would ensue. This had not been the expertise of Japanese European populations once they handled the Germans through the First World Conflict. 

I learn Sam Zell’s fantastic autobiography, Am I Being Too Refined? Sam’s Jewish family members didn’t need to go away Poland in 1939. They weren’t afraid of Germans, as a result of the final time they have been occupied by Germany, throughout WWI, the Germans handled them effectively. Fortunately, Sam’s father traveled round Europe and realized that Hitler’s Germany was a lot completely different from the one twenty years earlier than. Sam’s household left Poland hours earlier than their city acquired bombed by the Germans. 

However I nonetheless need to stress this level: The vast majority of Ukrainians, together with my grandfather, fought towards the Nazis. They have been no much less courageous than the Russians, and plenty of gave their lives to liberate the world from Nazism. Once more, Ukraine is a big and numerous nation. 

Ukraine’s darkish historical past offers loads of materials for Putin’s propaganda machine to work with. However many international locations have darkish histories. Let’s take the USA, for example. If Putin’s propagandists needed to persuade Russians to invade America to liberate Black individuals from “racist neo-Nazi White People,” our historical past would supply loads of uncooked materials, too. 

Putin’s propaganda documentary would begin with slavery. It might let you know that the founding fathers of America owned individuals as non-public property. It might go on to let you know that racism is embedded within the DNA of our structure. The documentary would have historians narrating and showcasing the horrible lives African-People had within the US for hundreds of years. None of them could be mendacity. There could be movies that includes the KKK lynching and tar-and-feathering Blacks. The movie would present footage from the Nineteen Fifties—not that way back—of segregated public amenities with indicators “Whites solely.”

Then the documentary would fast-forward to latest instances. You’d see video clips of police capturing Blacks within the again or choking them to dying. Or of final yr’s BLM and anti-BLM protests, just like the one in Charlottesville. Then it could combine in some footage of Hitler after which of neo-Nazis marching in Nazi regalia, brandishing torches and giving the “sieg heil!” salute – there are many these movies circulating within the US, too. After you have been achieved watching this movie, for those who have been a kindhearted Russian, your blood would boil with anger and disgust towards White People. 

This propaganda video would fastidiously filter out any optimistic developments which have occurred in our nation up to now century: the civil rights motion, the tip of segregation, and basic public outcry from all corners of our society towards anti-Black racism. It might not present that as a rustic we progressed, we modified, we improved. 

The propaganda machine wouldn’t cease with one documentary. Russian TV would feed you little clips of White People exhibiting neo-Nazis tendencies a number of instances a day on the one and solely authorities information channel. Entrepreneurs know that so that you can keep in mind a message after which to imagine it, it must be repeated many instances. The propaganda machine would convey a Hubble telescope to bear on each racial injustice that has ever been perpetrated in our nation. It might amplify them a lot that for those who had by no means been within the US, you’ll imagine that Black persons are so oppressed right now that there’s little distinction between their therapy by White People 2 hundred years in the past and right now. I’m on no account glossing over the numerous evident and painful examples of racism in our present society. However, by the point Russian propaganda was achieved with you, you’d be satisfied that Black persons are afraid to go grocery buying and that White People all put on KKK hoods as a substitute of baseball caps. 

Russian propaganda doesn’t cease at simply dredging up darkish historical past that has little semblance to present actuality. It makes up tales and phases faux occasions. Let me provide you with a really actual instance from Ukraine. After I wrote half 1 of this sequence, a reader from Russia despatched me a video with the topic line “And also you say there are not any neo-Nazis in Ukraine.” I watched the video, and I couldn’t imagine my eyes. Then I googled and located a number of respected newspapers writing about it. Here’s what The Occasions of Israel wrote about it:

[The video shows] customers climbing up and down the staircase [in a shopping mall in Kyiv], whose middle-section stairs function a big swastika locked in a white rhombus encircled by pink, just like Nazi Germany’s flag. The road the place the shopping center is positioned is on the road named for Stepan Bandera, a Ukrainian nationalist who briefly collaborated with Nazi Germany in its combat towards Russia.

Be aware the Stepan Bandera reference; it will be important. I’ll deal with him quickly.

I stored trying and located the identical story all over the place. After which I discovered an clarification of what had occurred:

The LED stairs of the “Horodok” shopping center in Kyiv lit up with a large swastika for a couple of minutes on 16 February 2019. The stunning show bewildered customers, and after a number of minutes, safety turned off the ability of the LED lights. Horodok’s administration apologized for the incident and claimed their computer systems have been hacked.

We’ll by no means know whether or not the LED show was hacked by a Russian disinformation operation or Ukrainian neo-Nazis. The purpose is, this video would have you ever imagine {that a} gigantic Nazi swastika in a shopping center within the middle of Kyiv is simply one other day in Ukraine. After all, it’s something however. Displaying swastika is against the law within the Ukraine. The identical newspaper I quote above wrote the next: “On 21 February, Ukraine’s safety service opened a legal probe into the swastika present below p.1 of article 426-1 of Ukraine’s legal code, which prohibits propaganda of Nazi and Communist ideology.”

This is only one of many examples the place Russian propaganda tries to painting Ukrainians as neo-Nazis. 

We can’t talk about the subject of neo-Nazism in Ukraine and never talk about Stepan Bandera. You hear Bandera’s title on Russian TV nonstop. In reality, they’ll name Ukrainians “Banderovtsi,” which implies, to them “Russia- and Soviet-hating, Jew-killing neo-Nazis.”

Stepan Bandera fought for the independence of Ukraine and have become the pinnacle of the Group of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) in 1933. He orchestrated the assassination of the Polish minister of the inside, for which he was sentenced to dying. The Nazis invaded Poland and Bandera escaped from jail.

Bandera collaborated intently with Nazi Germany. The Nazis led him to imagine that Ukraine would get its independence below German rule. The Nazis broke their promise shortly after the invasion of Ukraine. Afraid that Bandera would begin a revolt towards Germany, they arrested him in June 1941. Bandera spent most of WWII in a German focus camp. Whereas he was there, his group, OUN, preventing on Germany’s facet, dedicated atrocities towards Russians, Jews, and Poles, murdering as many as 100,000 individuals. Bandera was assassinated by the KGB in 1959.

Jewish individuals suffered from pogroms (organized massacres) throughout Europe for hundreds of years. Most governments all through Europe both inspired it or closed their eyes. Ukraine was not any completely different. Nevertheless, Lenin put in place an anti-pogrom coverage. For this reason a variety of Jews joined the Soviets. Since Soviets have been the enemy, and thus so have been Jews, this gave Ukrainians another excuse to hate Jews. (Being Jewish, the primary purpose nonetheless escapes me.) Here’s what Bandera stated about Jews: “The Jews within the USSR represent essentially the most devoted help of the ruling Bolshevik regime, and the vanguard of Muscovite imperialism in Ukraine.” I hate discovering a nuance in somebody hating a race (my race), however his hatred of Jews was very completely different from Hitler’s perception that “Jews are an inferior race.”

After we talk about Bandera we have to outline two phrases, nationalist and patriot. We’re getting into into the murky entrails of social science. Patriotism usually carries a optimistic connotation and nationalism a damaging one, although till the twentieth century they each meant the identical factor. They’ve a standard core: love of and dedication to at least one’s nation. A patriot desires sovereignty for his nation. A nationalist is usually patriot who imagine within the superiority (exceptionalism) of his or her nation or race, as was the case with the Nazis). A variety of nationalists will tolerate minorities so long as they don’t intervene with the bulk – that was the case with Bandera. Nazis are a contemporary instance of an excessive case of nationalism. Nevertheless, the strains between the 2 phrases usually get blurry, as you’ll see. 

Was Bandera a nationalist or a patriot? We all know he needed an unbiased Ukraine, as any patriot would. Nevertheless, since along with Ukrainian independence he needed to rid all different nationalities from Ukraine, that might make him a nationalist. Bandera is a polarizing determine in Ukraine. A 3rd of the nation has a damaging picture of him as a murderous nationalist and a 3rd a optimistic one as a fighter for Ukraine’s independence (I get the sensation those that suffered essentially the most from the Soviets belong to this group). He’s unpopular in Japanese Ukraine (the territory nearer to Russia) and highly regarded (a 76% favorable ranking) in Western Ukraine.

In 2015, Ukraine handed a regulation centered on the de-communization of Ukraine, which resulted within the elimination of Soviet monuments and the renaming of 52,000 streets beforehand named after Soviets, changing them with the names of Ukrainian historic figures. The regulation gave a variety of uncooked materials to Putin’s propaganda machine. First, Russians, who, identical to Ukrainians, suffered enormous losses throughout WWII, are very delicate to something regarding WWII. If you wish to get right into a bar combat with nearly any Russian, inform them that the People, by opening a second entrance, helped to win WWII. 

Due to Russian propaganda reminding them about it a number of instances a day, Russians are insulted by Ukrainians eradicating from their streets the names of Soviet generals who fought the Nazis. Additionally, since they see Bandera solely as a Nazi sympathizer, they painting this transfer as Ukraine reverting to its pure state of being neo-Nazi and thus exhibiting its true colours. However right here’s an vital level: This regulation additionally banned Nazi symbols.

I attempted to debate this subject with my classmates from Russia. I’d inform them that I understood that they’d a problem with Bandera (I’m not a fan, both). However I might see how some Ukrainians take a look at him because the fighter for his or her independence that this nation all the time wanted. This doesn’t make Ukrainians routinely neo-Nazis; in spite of everything, (paraphrasing Forrest Gump), a Nazi is what a Nazi does. 

Irony arises once I ask my Russian classmates, don’t you suppose that what Stalin did to Russians, Ukrainians, and the remainder of the Soviet Union was exponentially worse than what Bandera did? In any case, Stalin killed twenty million individuals within the Soviet Union. He beheaded high ranks of the Soviet Military (identical to Putin, or any dictator, he was afraid of sturdy leaders), which resulted in a lot better losses of life within the Soviet Union throughout WWII. I’d inform them, you criticize Ukrainians for naming streets after Stepan Bandera, however Joseph Stalin is in vogue once more in Russia and his statues are popping up everywhere in the nation. My Russian center faculty buddies tended to answer that Stalin was a posh, non unusual particular person. 

After which there’s the Azov Battalion. This title pops up in each different dialog and Putin’s propaganda. The Azov Battalion is known as after the Azov Sea. It began out as a personal militia funded and shaped by a Ukrainian oligarch to combat off the Russian invasion of Japanese Ukraine. On the time of its formation the Ukrainian Military was very weak, and the formation of the battalion appeared like an act of desperation. Russians are terrified by this battalion, because it fought efficiently within the second assault of Mariupol in 2014. (Mariupol is town being changed into rubble by Putin’s bombing right now.) In 2015 the Azov Battalion was folded into the Ukrainian Nationwide Guard. It stays one of many best-trained items in Ukraine. I’ve learn experiences that the battalion has been skilled by the US. Its sole purpose is to defend Ukraine from Russia.

There’s loads of uncooked materials right here for Russian propaganda. The insignia of the battalion considerably resembles a swastika, although the battalion denies that. It says that it derives from a Ukrainian image that dates again to 1918. Name me a skeptic. Extra importantly, at one level as many as 20% of its members recognized themselves as neo-Nazi sympathizers.

I struggled with Azov for a very long time, after which had this perception: Think about my neighborhood is overrun by invaders (zombies, for those who like). My next-door neighbor is a neo-Nazi, wears a Nazi swastika, lights a candle each day to Adolph Hitler, and bakes a cake for Hitler’s birthday. We, my neighbor and I, take up arms to combat these invaders, who’re decided to kill our households. At this level I don’t care what beliefs my neighbor holds, I simply need to make sure that he has a gun and is aware of learn how to use it. We don’t share the identical values (an understatement), however at this level we’re united by the identical purpose. My neighbor could also be a nationalist, he might imagine our neighborhood is superior to others (although he doesn’t do something about it), however at this level we’re each patriots preventing to guard our family members. 

That is precisely how I view the neo-Nazi 20% of the Azov Battalion. Immediately they share the identical purpose as the remainder of the battalion and 100% of the nation: Free Ukraine from the Russian invaders who’re killing their family members and leveling their cities. Additionally, I’ve to remind you that the Azov Battalion is a battalion, not the entire military. I’ve seen numbers that it has 900 troopers, so within the worst case 180 are sympathetic to neo-Nazis; however the Ukrainian Military has 1 / 4 of one million individuals, so 180 is a rounding error. Russian propaganda would have you ever imagine that 20% of that battalion is the entire Ukrainian Military.

As a lot as Russians would like to level to neo-Nazis within the Azov Battalion, they need to take a look at their very own ranks. In 2015, Russia (unofficially) despatched their army to help Russian separatists in Japanese Ukraine preventing the Ukrainian Military. Putin additionally despatched a Russian neo-Nazi group, the Russian Imperial Motion. I used to be going to say that Russian-sponsored neo-Nazis are a transparent occasion of nationalists, not patriots, however then I spotted that they’re simply neo-Nazis thugs employed to kill Ukrainians. 

(Should you’d wish to be taught extra in regards to the Azov Battalion, these two movies present an goal overview: one and two.)

“Is there a neo-Nazi downside in Ukraine?” I’d ask my Ukrainian buddies (who I used to be fairly sure weren’t neo-Nazis). They’d be considerably puzzled by it, as if they’d not given it a lot thought, simply as you’d draw a clean look for those who requested me or any of my buddies in Denver (or most of my readers, in all probability) the identical query in regards to the US. I do know I’d be puzzled by it. I see occasional clips on TV of white supremacists having political rallies. There was a tragic capturing at a synagogue in Pittsburgh in 2018, which has now been shuffled in my reminiscence with a dozen of different mass shootings unrelated to neo-Nazis which have occurred since. I’ve learn that anti-Semitism is on the rise within the US and Europe. However when my spouse and children and I’m going to synagogue, I don’t fear about our security. Fortunately. 

However then I learn that nearly one out of ten People thinks it’s acceptable to carry neo-Nazi views. I don’t know a single a kind of “one out of ten.” I doubt a lot of my buddies and readers do, both. Possibly these “one out of ten” fall outdoors of our myopic circles (I mentioned the idea of myopic circles right here) and regular, variety hearted, civilized individuals don’t often affiliate themselves with scum (I’m not apologetic about it). Or simply possibly, these “one out of ten” are round us they usually simply don’t publicize their neo-Nazi sympathies. 

In 2019 Ukraine held democratic elections. 73% of the nation voted to elect a Jewish president in a rustic that additionally had a Jewish prime minister. Ukrainians have to be a novel breed of neo-Nazis, as Ukraine is the one nation on the earth whose head of presidency and head of state are Jewish (outdoors of Israel). By the best way, in the identical election, the far proper celebration acquired solely 2.3% of the vote. So no, Ukraine doesn’t have a neo-Nazi downside. Identical to any Western nation, Ukraine is affected by the neo-Nazi most cancers, but it surely represents solely a tiny portion of the society. 

I used to be speaking to a pricey childhood buddy who lives in Russia, and he informed me one thing that caught with me. He stated, “The issue with Russians is, we don’t apologize.” I didn’t perceive it on the time, however then I chanced on this speech by the Ukrainian prime minister to Israel’s Knesset in 2015, apologizing to the Jewish individuals for the position Ukrainian collaborators performed in executing 33,000 Jews in lower than two days through the Babi Yar in 1941.

That apology won’t convey these perished souls again. However it’s going to do two issues: It’s an admission and it takes possession of this occasion. That will sound like just a little factor, however it’s not. We dwell in a society the place historical past is written not by the man with a pen however by the man holding a gun to the pinnacle of the man with a pen. Historical past is continually being rewritten – in Russia, Stalin went from being a monster to celebrated hero once more in lower than 20 years. An apology by a president of a rustic cements reality into the historical past books. Although it’s not a assure, it reduces the possibilities of repeating an atrocity sooner or later. Neo-Nazis don’t make apologies like that. 

For the final three weeks, as I used to be engaged on this four-part essay sequence, I deepened my appreciation of so many issues we take as a right within the Western world: democracy, free elections, due course of, and the rule of regulation, however particularly these two issues: freedom of speech and a free press. 

Immediately in Russia, persons are put in jail not only for talking towards this struggle however for merely calling this “particular operation” in Ukraine a struggle. Collaborating in a peaceable demonstration or posting an image of killed Ukrainian civilians on social media may even land you in jail. After which there’s freedom of the press, which dies with out freedom of speech. That is precisely what has occurred (once more) in Russia. 

Propaganda coupled with the dismantling of the free press has created a weapon of mass distraction. This mix is extremely harmful; it offers a dictatorial authorities limitless energy over the thoughts of its individuals. It permits authorities to exactly curate what individuals suppose and thus supplies an nearly limitless carte blanche for presidency actions – that is what allowed the unthinkable, barbaric struggle towards Ukraine. 

Propaganda strips away all unbiased pondering, turning individuals into senseless drones. Propaganda works by inflicting our proper (emotional) mind to overwhelm our left (analytical) one. The extra you “suppose” together with your proper mind, the much less pondering you do. Over time, feelings evoked by propaganda forestall you from objectively analyzing the topic at hand. You will have a tough time telling what’s true and what’s not. Over time, peer strain units in, and it’s onerous to be the one enlightened one. That is how individuals get zombified.

I keep in mind watching The Strolling Lifeless – that present a couple of zombie apocalypse. This second caught with me. A husband sees his wife-turned-zombie strolling down the road. He runs as much as her and tries to speak to this shell of an individual. He desperately makes an attempt to attraction to any particle of soul left within the physique of what was his spouse. He can’t get by to her. She is useless. He’s speaking to an empty shell. Unusually sufficient, that is the expertise I had once I tried speaking to Russians zombified by Putin’s propaganda about Ukraine and neo-Nazis in Ukraine. This expertise isn’t distinctive to me. I’ve examine and met younger Russian adults who’ve had this expertise with their dad and mom, who have been in any other case clever individuals and nonetheless are relating to different components of life. 

Should you look deep sufficient into the historical past of just about any nation, you’ll discover darkish, tragic holes in it. However we aren’t our historical past. We aren’t our previous. We’re what we be taught from it. We’re our actions right now. Ukraine had a tragic and painful historical past, however in contrast to Russia, it has discovered from it. 

Ukraine’s fault was that it was a budding democracy proper subsequent to a shriveling, dictatorial ex-empire. Putin couldn’t dwell with the truth that a democracy subsequent door, a rustic that didn’t need to dwell below his thumb, additionally needed to embrace Western values. It additionally dared to aim to prosper whereas the ex-empire below his rule grew to become a bit much less related each day. 

The dictator subsequent door wanted an excuse to invade Ukraine. The nonexistent risk of NATO appeared like a very good one. However it was not sufficient justification for beginning a struggle and killing individuals who look identical to his personal inhabitants. He needed to dehumanize the individuals he was about to kill. He satisfied his populace that by his bombing cities and killing Ukrainians by the hundreds, the Russian Military was doing God’s work and de-Nazifying the nation – he even threw within the bonus that he’d additionally eliminate drug addicts. (I’ll contact on that subsequent.) 

In all honesty, neither an excuse to invade nor his dehumanization marketing campaign actually mattered. With the thoughts management his propaganda has over Russians, given sufficient time he might have satisfied them he was de-Marsifying Ukraine from Martians. 

One final be aware: 

In his speech Putin stated that along with de-Nazification he’d be ridding Ukraine of drug addicts. My shut childhood buddy informed me an attention-grabbing story about this. One week into the struggle, Volodymyr Zelensky was giving an interview to the Western media, and he was falling asleep. For a number of days Russian propaganda replayed this clip. For a number of hours a day the propaganda machine paraded a military of psychologists and drug habit specialists to elucidate to the thirsty-for-knowledge Russian public that this Jewish neo-Nazi (the brand new variety) was behaving identical to a typical drug addict. After all, any particular person with only a slight consciousness of the scenario wouldn’t want a military of specialists to inform them what was occurring with Zelensky – he was terribly sleep-deprived. 

However right here is the place the attention-grabbing half is available in. My buddy was speaking to his mother-in-law. She was telling him how Zelensky is a drug addict. He requested her, “Don’t you suppose he’s simply quick on sleep as a result of his nation is at struggle?” She gave him a puzzled look. He continued, “The place do you suppose Zelensky is?” She replied, “In Poland, together with his household.” My buddy threw up his arms and stated “I quit!”  I relaxation my case.



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